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First aid group (also known as boot/root), an indispensable tool for system administrators. From which you can start and run a complete Linux system independently. In fact, first aid on the 2nd disc in the disk group will have a complete Linux system, including the root file system; and the 1th disks store a bootable kernel.

Using the emergency Dell laptop batteries disk group maintains the system is very simple. Simply use the two after the system is booted into rescue mode, then using the root account.

In order to be able to access files on your hard disk, you need to manually install the hard disk file system. For example, use the following command to install/dev/hda2 in the/mnt directory type Linux ext2fs file system on drive:


Note: it is a first aid disk root directory on the root directory. In order to access the hard disk files on a file system, you must first install it to a directory. Thus, if the file system is installed in the/MMT directory on your hard disk, then the path Dell p04g001 Laptop Battery of the original/etc/passwd file on the hard disk is/mnt/etc/passwd.

When the file system is damaged

When the file system is damaged, if you use type ext2fs file system can be transported from the floppy e2fsck commands to fix corrupted data in the file system. For other types of file system, the fsck command can be used. When checking file system Dell Inspiron 14z Laptop Battery on the floppy disk, preferably not mount installation.

Note: the file system superblock by common causes of damage are damaged super block file system “head”. It contains the State of the file system, the size and free disk blocks and other information. If a file system superblock is corrupt (for example accidentally write data directly to the file system’s superblock partitions), then the system may not recognize the file system, so would be unable to install it, even using e2fsck command cannot deal with this problem.

However, the type of ext2fs file system superblock backups to the content of, and deposited in the driver group (blockgroup) boundaries. Can be notified with the following command e2fsck superblock backups


-B8193 refers to the file system is located in partitions,-b8193 option is used to display uses storing 8193 blocks in the file system’s superblock backups.

Recover lost files

If you accidentally delete an important file, so there is no way to directly recover. But can also copy the appropriate files from the emergency disk to your hard disk Dell 0gw241 Laptop Battery . For example, if you deleted the file/bin/login, the system doesn’t go to login, you can start the system using emergency disk set, the hard disk file system is mounted to/mnt directory, then use the following command:


The “-a” option is used to tell CP copies file access permissions. Of course, if the basic files are not being deleted “first aid group”, would be unable to use this method. If doing system backups, and can also be restored from a previous backup.

Function library when processing method

If we are not careful the system library files destroyed or undermined the symbolic links under/lib directory, then will cause the command cannot be performed because dependent on those libraries. The simplest solution would be to use the first aid group starts the system, install the hard disk file system in the/mnt directory, then fix under the/mnt/lib directory.

Unable to login with root account system

Because the system administrator’s negligence, or due to system intrusion by hackers, system administrators may not be able to use the root account is logged on to the system.

1th, in each case, there may be system administrators forget root password, use emergency disk group can solve the problem.

For the 2nd part, because most likely the password is modified,Acer Travelmate 5720-2a2g16 Laptop Battery, so the system administrator is not able to enter the system, that is, the Linux system is completely out of control, so you should regain control of the system as soon as possible. After obtaining the root permissions, you should also check systems have been compromised for fear that hackers invaded again.

Most major work needs to be done is to reset the root password, and gain control of the Linux operating system. First start the system using emergency disk group, and then under the hard disk’s file system is mounted to/mnt directory, edit the/mnt/etc/passwd file, which corresponds to the encrypted password for the root account field blank, as shown below:


Note: If your system uses shadow tool, you need to file/etc/shadow to carry out such operations to enable root login system does not require a password. In this way, no password for the root account. If you boot Linux from the hard drive when the system is,Acer Travelmate tm8172 Laptop Battery, you can use the root account login (System does not require you to enter a password). After entering the system, and then use the command passwd to set a new password.

Linux system will not boot

In General, if your system administrator does not enter the system properly, you need to consider the use of first-aid group enters emergency mode to troubleshoot the system failed. But in this case without creating a rescue disk set, Linux system will not start, what should I do? When using Linux systems in the PC, usually both Linux and MSWindows9x or MSWindowsNT.

Due to reinstall other OS has resulted the Linux will not boot. This is mainly because, these operating systems default to no other operating systems on the computer, Dell uk716 Laptop Battery and thus overwrites the hard disk master boot record (MBR),Acer Travelmate 8172-38u2g25n Timelinex Laptop Battery, flush the Linux LILO boot program.

If you have an emergency disk groups, then it is simple, first Linux system boot disk hard drive, rerun LILO command LILO to boot the system program can be written back to the hard disk’s master boot record. Power on again.
From http://www.maxbattery.com.au, post Familiar with the Linux operating system, emergency treatment