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Date Submitted Wed. Sep. 25th, 2013 10:25 AM
Revision 1
Scripter applease
Tags fiber | glass | optical | Plastic | ptical
Comments 0 comments
Optical fiber is a flexible and transparent fiber made of glass or plastic that transmits light between the two ends of the fiber. Generally used in fiber optic communications, which permit transmissions over longer distances and at higher bandwidths, optical fibers provide better services compared to other forms of communication.

Nowadays, fiber optic cables are gaining in popularity, rapidly replacing traditional copper transmission cables. Instead of transmitting signals with electrical impulses like copper lines, fiber optic cables use light pulses that propagate through small strands of silica glass. To send data, a light source such as an LED or a laser is placed at one end of the cable. Copper wires are delicate and difficult to maintain, while fiber optic cables are durable, have stronger tension and are cheaper. Fiber cabling is not only required by large business corporations but also at home for smoother communication.

The most commonly used fiber optic cables are single mode, multimode and plastic optical fiber (POF). Multimode fibers are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted, while single-mode fibers are used for most communication links over one kilometer. Both single-mode and multimode fiber optic cables are made out of glass.

In contrast with glass fiber, plastic fibers use harmless green or red light that is easily visible to the eye. Plastic fibers can be safely installed in a home without risk to inquisitive children. A second advantage is their toughness. Plastic fibers are much thicker than glass fibers, a millimeter or more, and can be handled without special tools or techniques. You need not be trained to handle and install it. You just cut it with scissors, plug it in and it works.

POF is an optical fiber which is made out of plastic. Similar to traditional glass fiber, POF transmits light through the core of the fiber. But the core size of POF is in some cases 100 times larger than glass fiber. As fiber technology continues to become more flexible and less expensive, Plastic fibers are generally more cost effective than glass fiber optic cables and are ideal for applications that require continuous flexing of the fiber. POF cables are constructed of a single acrylic monofilament and are most efficient when used with visible red status indicator light sources. A wide range of fiber optic tips are available. POF has been called the consumer optical fiber because the fiber and associated optical links, connectors, and installation are all inexpensive. The per fluorinated polymer fibers are commonly used for much higher-speed applications such as data center wiring and building LAN wiring.

As a topping fiber optic cable supplier, FiberStore offers high-quality products at an affordable price. Except the traditional single-mode and multimode glass fibers, we also supply figure of 8 cable and POF cable.
Date Submitted Tue. Sep. 24th, 2013 7:31 AM
Revision 1
Scripter applease
Tags fiber | glass | optical | POF
Comments 0 comments
Materials For Optical Fibers
There's two major kinds of optical fibers: plastic optical fiber (POF) and glass optical fiber.

POF fiber is usually designed for lighting or decoration such as fiber optic christmas trees. It is also used on short range communication applications for example on vehicles and ships. Because of plastic optical fiber's high attenuation, they've limited information carrying bandwidth.

Whenever we talk about fiber optic networks and fiber optic telecommunications, we actually mean glass optical fibers. Glass optical fibers are mostly made from fused silica (90% a minimum of). Other glass materials such as fluorozirconate and fluoroaluminate are also utilized in some specialty fibers.

Glass Optical Fiber Manufacturing Process
Before we start talking how you can manufacture glass optical fibers, let's first check out its cross-section structure. Optical fiber cross section is really a circular structure composed of three layers inside out.

A. The inner layer is called the main. This layer guides the sunshine and prevent light from escaping out with a phenomenon called total internal reflection. The core's diameter is 9um for single mode fibers and 50um or 62.5um for multimode fibers.

B. The center layer is called the cladding. It has 1% lower refractive index than the core material. This difference plays part in total internal reflection phenomenon. The cladding's diameter is usually 125um.

C. The outer layer is called the coating. It is actually epoxy cured by ultraviolet light. This layer provides mechanical protection for the fiber and helps make the fiber flexible to handle. Without it coating layer, the fiber will be very fragile and simple to interrupt.

Due to optical fiber's extreme tiny size, it's not practical to produce it in one step. Three steps are required once we explain below.

1. Preparing The Fiber Preform
Standard optical fibers are created beginning with constructing a large-diameter preform, with a carefully controlled refractive index profile. Only several countries including US be capable of make large volume, high quality fiber preforms. The process to create glass preform is known as MOCVD (modified chemical vapor deposition). In MCVD, a 40cm long hollow quartz tube is fixed horizontally and rotated slowly on the special lathe. Oxygen is bubbled through solutions of silicon chloride (SiCl4), germanium chloride (GeCl4) and/or other chemicals. This precisely mixed gas is then injected in to the hollow tube. Because the lathe turns, a hydrogen burner torch is moved up and down the outside of the tube. The gases are heated by the torch as much as 1900 kelvins. This extreme heat causes two chemical reactions to happen.

A. The silicon and germanium interact with oxygen, forming silicon dioxide (SiO2) and germanium dioxide (GeO2).

B. The silicon dioxide and germanium dioxide deposit on the inside of the tube and fuse together to form glass.

The hydrogen burner will be traversed up and down the length of the tube to deposit the fabric evenly. After the torch has reached no more the tube, it is then brought back to the beginning of the tube and the deposited particles are then melted to create a solid layer. This method is repeated until an adequate amount of material has been deposited.

2. Drawing Fibers On The Drawing Tower
The preform will be mounted to the peak of the vertical fiber drawing tower. The preforms is first lowered into a 2000 degrees Celsius furnace. Its tip gets melted until a molten glob falls down by gravity. The glob cools and forms a thread because it drops down. This starting strand will be pulled via a number of buffer coating cups and UV light curing ovens, finally onto an electric motor controlled cylindrical fiber spool. The motor slowly draws the fiber from the heated preform. The formed fiber diameter is strictly controlled by a laser micrometer. The running speed of the fiber drawing motor is about 15 meters/second. Up to 20km of continuous fibers could be wound onto a single spool.

3. Testing Finished Optical Fibers
Telecommunication applications require very high quality glass optical fibers. The fiber's mechanical and optical properties will be checked.

Mechanical Properties:

A. Tensile strength: Fiber must withstand 100,000 (lb/square inch) tension

B. Fiber geometry: Checks fiber's core, cladding and coating sizes

Optical Properties:

A. Refractive index profile: Probably the most critical optical spec for fiber's information carrying bandwidth

B. Attenuation: Very crucial for long distance fiber optic links

C. Chromatic dispersion: Becomes more and more critical in high-speed fiber optic telecommunication applications

After the testing are finished, the optical fiber can be made as fiber optic cable for sale. Whatever kinds of common cables, including single-mode and multimode, or other special ones like figure of 8 cable, are made of glass optical fiber. FiberStore supplies bulk fiber cables which are all strictly manufactured.
Date Submitted Thu. Jul. 11th, 2013 4:35 AM
Revision 1
Syntax Master claireling
Tags cable | fiber | glass | networking | OM4 | optic
Comments 0 comments
There are different categories of graded-index multimode glass fiber cable, including OM1, OM2, OM3 and OM4 cables (OM stands for optical multi-mode). OM1 specifies 62.5-micron cable and OM2 specifies 50-micron cable. These are commonly used in premises applications for shorter reach 1Gb/s networks. But OM1 and OM2 cable are not suitable for today¡¯s higher-speed networks. OM3 and OM4 are both laser-optimized multimode fiber (LOMMF) and were developed to accommodate faster fiber optic networking such as 10, 40, and 100 Gbps. Both are designed for use with 850-nm VCSELS (vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers) and have aqua sheaths.

OM3 specifies an 850-nm laser-optimized 50-micron cable with an effective modal bandwidth (EMB) of 2000 MHz/km. It can support 10-Gbps link distances up to 300 meters. OM4 specifies a high-bandwidth 850-nm laser-optimized 50-micron cable an effective modal bandwidth of 4700 MHz/km. It can support 10-Gbps link distances of 550 meters. 100 Gbps distances are 100 meters and 150 meters, respectively.

What Makes OM4 Different?

OM4 fiber, with its higher bandwidth, has an extremely precise refractive index profile, virtually free of perturbations or defects. Just like OM3, OM4 is a 50-micron, considered to be laser-optimized multimode fiber for use with VCSELs. The key difference of OM4 from OM3 is in the refractive index of the fiber, which is more precisely graded to better equalize the arrival time of the light modes traveling at various speeds along the core of the fiber. Mode equalization depends on how well the graded index profile is constructed during fiber manufacturing. The better the modes are equalized, the higher the bandwidth of the fiber. This translates to higher bandwidth and a 550-meter reach for 10Gb/s (with some vendors claiming a 600-meter reach) and a 150-meter reach for 40/100 Gig, compared to 300 and 100 meters respectively for OM3.

You can use OM2 fiber with VCSELs, but its performance is limited to 550 meters at 1 Gb/s and only 82 meters at 10 Gb/s, compared to OM4 fiber¡¯s reach of over 1000 meters at 1 Gb/s and 550 meters at 10 Gb/s.

OM3 and OM4 fibers are selected as the only multimode fiber for 40G/100G applications, which are the development trends of fiber optic communication. The 40G and 100G speeds are currently achieved by bundling multiple channels together in parallel with special multi-channel (or multi-lane) connector types. This standard defines an expected operating range of up to 100m for OM3 and up to 150m for OM4 for 40 Gigabit Ethernet and 100 Gigabit Ethernet. The OM3 and OM4 fibers are optimized for 850-nm transmission and have a minimum 2000 MHz.km and 4700 MHz.km effective modal bandwidth (EMB), respectively. Two EMB measurement techniques are used today for the bandwidth measurement. The minimum effective modal bandwidth calculated (EMBc) method, in our opinion, offers a more reliable and precise measurement compared to the differential mode delay (DMD) mask technique. With minEMBc, a true scalable bandwidth value is calculated that can reliably predict performance for different data rates and link lengths. With a connectivity solution using OM3 and OM4 fibers that have been measured using the minEMBc technique, the optical infrastructure deployed in the data center will meet the performance criteria set forth by IEEE for bandwidth.

OM4 cable is also especially well suited for shorter reach data center and high performance computing applications, which is the best option for the small percentage for users running 10Gb/s over links between 300 and 550 meters (or the even smaller percent who anticipate running 40 or 100Gb/s between 100 and 150 meters).
Date Submitted Thu. Jun. 27th, 2013 2:53 AM
Revision 1
Syntax Master claireling
Tags cable | Connector | fiber | glass | SC | st
Comments 0 comments
Fiber optic connector is a mechanical device mounted on the end of a fiber optic cable, light source, receiver, or housing, the connector allows these devices to be mated to a similar device. Of the many different connector types, connectors for both glass fiber cable and plastic fiber optic cable are available. The terminal ends of all fiber cable strands shall be field connectorized. It is IST¡¯s practice to terminate both ends of all fibers within a fiber cable with ST, epoxy and polish style connectors. Termination of older cables may be of several types including mechanical or fusion spliced pigtails.

There are a number of connector styles on the market including LC, FC, MT-RJ, ST and SC, belong them the SC Connector is the most popular connectors. Manufacturers and distributors are more likely to have equipment to accommodate SC and ST style connectors than any other connector style. That should be a consideration when making product selections.

SC Connectors

SC connectors are used with single-mode and multimode fiber-optic cables. They offer low cost, simplicity, and durability. SC connectors provide for accurate alignment via their ceramic ferrules. An SC connector is a push-on, pull-off connector with a locking tab. Typical matched SC connectors are rated for 1000 mating cycles and have an insertion loss of 0.25 dB. From a design perspective, it is recommended to use a loss margin of 0.5 dB or the vendor recommendation for SC connectors.

FC Connectors

These connectors are used for single-mode and multimode fiber-optic cables. FC connectors offer extremely precise positioning of the fiber-optic cable with respect to the transmitter¡¯s optical source emitter and the receiver¡¯s optical detector. FC connectors feature a position locatable notch and a threaded receptacle. FC connectors are constructed with a metal housing and are nickel-plated. They have ceramic ferrules and are rated for 500 mating cycles. The insertion loss for matched FC connectors is 0.25 dB. From a design perspective, it is recommended to use a loss margin of 0.5 dB or the vendor recommendation for FC connectors.

ST Connectors

The ST Connector is a keyed bayonet connector and is used for both multimode and single-mode fiber-optic cables. It can be inserted into and removed from a fiber-optic cable both quickly and easily. Method of location is also easy. ST connectors come in two versions: ST and ST-II. These are keyed and spring-loaded. They are push-in and twist types. ST connectors are constructed with a metal housing and are nickel-plated. They have ceramic ferrules and are rated for 500 mating cycles. The typical insertion loss for matched ST connectors is 0.25 dB. From a design perspective, it is recommended to use a loss margin of 0.5 dB or the vendor recommendation for ST connectors.

LC Connectors

LC connectors are used with single-mode and multimode fiber-optic cables. The LC connectors are constructed with a plastic housing and provide for accurate alignment via their ceramic ferrules. LC connectors have a locking tab. LC connectors are rated for 500 mating cycles. The typical insertion loss for matched LC connectors is 0.25 dB. From a design perspective, it is recommended to use a loss margin of 0.5 dB or the vendor recommendation for LC connectors.

MT-RJ Connectors

MT-RJ connectors are used with single-mode and multimode fiber-optic cables. The MT-RJ connectors are constructed with a plastic housing and provide for accurate alignment via their metal guide pins and plastic ferrules. MT-RJ connectors are rated for 1000 mating cycles. The typical insertion loss for matched MT-RJ connectors is 0.25 dB for SMF and 0.35 dB for MMF. From a design perspective, it is recommended to use a loss margin of 0.5 dB or the vendor recommendation for MT-RJ connectors.

MTP/MPO Connectors

MTP/MPO connectors are used with single-mode and multimode fiber-optic cables. The MTP/MPO is a connector manufactured specifically for a multifiber ribbon cable. The MTP/MPO single-mode connectors have an angled ferrule allowing for minimal back reflection, whereas the multimode connector ferrule is commonly flat. The ribbon cable is flat and appropriately named due to its flat ribbon-like structure, which houses fibers side by side in a jacket. The typical insertion loss for matched MTP/MPO connectors is 0.25 dB. From a design perspective, it is recommended to use a loss margin of 0.5 dB or the vendor recommendation for MTP/MPO connectors.

There are also other types of connectors, have a wide seleciton of fiber connectors at FiberStore.
Date Submitted Fri. Apr. 26th, 2013 9:17 AM
Revision 1
Syntax Master claireling
Tags cable | fiber | glass | optic | outdoor
Comments 0 comments
Combined with continuous progression of optical fiber communication, optical cable also in constant development. Fibre is a communication cable, composed by two or more glass fiber cable or plastic optical fiber core inside cladding from the fiber core is found in the protective outer sleeve, plastic PVC covering. Over the internal optical fiber signal transmission is generally used infrared.Fiber optic cables are often manufactured from glass or plastic but those materials actually slow up the transmission of light extremely slightly.

New Type Optical Fiber Cable:

Recently, researchers in the university of Southampton, UK, have created a type of hollow optical fiber cable. This kind of equipment in the middle is hollow, only by filling the air, however its transport rates are 1000 times faster than the other fiber optic cable. Researchers says light in the air velocity is approximately 99.7% of the speed in the vacuum.

The idea had not been be placed forward recently, in days gone by when encountered while light transmission within the corner, the signal will invariably diminish. The study optimized the style, making the brand new type of hollow optical fiber cable loss of data is 3.5 dB/km, such an ideal level. In this manner, rendering it ideal for use in supercomputer and data center applications.

Hollow fiber optic cable(indoor/outdoor fiber optic cable) may go through air as opposed to light, therefore in several areas it's much more advantages than the traditional optical fiber and will eventually switch the traditional optical fiber.

Using hollow optic fiber cable, as opposed to the traditional high purity silica doped fiber core, its advantage are optical fiber performance is not restricted by material characteristics from the fiber core. Traditional optical damage threshold, the parameters for example attenuation and group velocity dispersion and nonlinear effects are affected by the silicon materials as well as other corresponding parameters. Through reasonable design, hollow fiber can achieve more than 99% with the light in the air as opposed to within the glass, thus help reduce the material properties of optical fiber properties. So in lots of important areas, hollow fiber optic cable transceiver have more advantages than the traditional optical fiber.

Theoretically, this sort of fiber optic cable no fiber core, reduced losing, to boost the communication distance, preventing the dispersion caused by the interference phenomenon, can hold more wavelengths, and permits the stronger light power injection, estimate its communications capacity can reach 1000 points during the the cable currently.

Promote hollow optic fiber cable with the ongoing research, with the extensive use of optical fiber and cable, the fiber optic cable continues to be not able to meet the requirements of those, therefore, need to still study new fiber optic cable so that you can conform to the requirements of people.Researchers at the University of Southampton in the united kingdom have formulated a hollow fiber-optic cable.From FiberStore,we supply many different types of fiber optic cables, and customers have the flexibility to choose a cable plant to best fit their needs.If you need some cables,welcome to Fiberstore to find it.

Source:New Fiber Optic Cable - The Advantages Of The Hollow Fiber Cable
Date Submitted Mon. Aug. 3rd, 2009 9:42 PM
Revision 1
Scripter Cloudgen
Tags effect | glass | Image | jquery | matt | plugin
Comments 0 comments
This is a jQuery plug-in for adding Matt Glass effect to an image. Examples